Please note that as is the nature of the internet, some links may become inaccessible either because they've been moved, broken, taken offline, or simply 'died'. Get ready for a journey of discovery - patiently scroll down!

This ONS (Office for National Statistics) PDF contains Experts, community and special interest group responses to the 2011 Census stakeholders consultation 2006/07

On 18 December 2009, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the year beginning on 1 January 2011 the International Year for People of African Descent (A/RES/64/169).
The Year aims at strengthening national actions and regional and international cooperation for the benefit of people of African descent in relation to their full enjoyment of economic, cultural, social, civil and political rights, their participation and integration in all political, economic, social and cultural aspects of society, and the promotion of a greater knowledge of and respect for their diverse heritage and culture...

The term "white race" or "white people" entered the major European languages in the later 17th century, originating with the racialization of slavery at the time, in the context of the Atlantic slave trade and enslavement of native peoples in the Spanish Empire. While first a social category, it has repeatedly been ascribed to strains of blood, ancestry, and physical traits, and was eventually made into a subject of scientific research, which culminated in scientific racism, before being widely repudiated by the scientific community...

The African diaspora was the movement of Africans and their descendants to places throughout the world—predominantly to the Americas also to Europe, the Middle East and other places around the globe. The term has been historically applied in particular to the descendants of the Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the Americas by way of the Atlantic slave trade, with the largest population in Brazil...

Black British is a term used to describe British people of Black African descent, especially those of Afro-Caribbean background. The term has been used from the 1950s to refer to Black people from former British colonies in the West Indies (i.e. the New Commonwealth) and Africa, who are residents of the United Kingdomand consider themselves British. Others are also from former French-speaking colonies in Africa such asSenegal and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which was Belgian), and many of the Black Africans in Britain still speak French as well as their own native languages.

The term 'black' has historically had a number applications as a racial and political label, and may be used in a wider socio-political context, to encompass a broader range of non-European ethnic minority populations in Britain, though this is a controversial and non-standard definition.
Black British is primarily used as a official category in UK national statistics ethnicity classifications, where it is sub-divided into 'Caribbean', 'African' and 'Other Black' groups...

Bacon's Rebellion
This uprising in 1676 in the Virginia colony in America against Native American attacks and for freedom, consisted of about a thousand Virginians consisting of former indentured servants, poor whites and enslaved Africans - this alliance disturbed the ruling class, who responded by hardening the racial caste of slavery. Some historians, such 'The Invention Of The White Race (Part 1 and 2)  author Theodore W. Allen (scroll down this link for Allen's interviews), point to the multi-racial alliance as the start of racialisation in present day United States Of America.

The Challenge Facing the Scholar of African Descent
This is Part 8 African American historian John Henrik Clarke's 'Education For A New Reality In The African World': Contrary to a misconception which still prevails, Africans were familiar with literature and art for many years before their contact with the Western World. Before the breaking-up of the social structure of the West African states of Ghana, Mali and Songhay and the internal strife and chaos that made the slave trade possible, the forefathers of the Africans who eventually became slaves in the United States, lived in a society where university life was fairly common and scholars were held in reverence. To understand fully any aspect of African American life one must realize that the African American is not without a cultural past, though he was many generations removed from it before his achievement in American literature and art commanded any appreciable attention.

That is why African and Africana history should be taught every day, not only in the schools, but also in the home and African American History Month should be every month. We need to learn about all of the African people in the world. The idea of an education for a new reality in the African world was already old, with me, before this decade. The serious study of the plight of African people all over the world, in all ages, conditions and geographical settings, has been the main part of my life's work...

This is a very small section (it includes an embedded video from the 'Motherland' documentary featuring UK-based lecturer and historian Dr Kimani Nehusi (who also appears in 'The African Or Black Question') of a very extensive feature piece by scholar and filmmaker 'Alik Shahadah's 'The African Race: Defining African Identity Today'. The feature provides a very rounded coverage of a multi-dimensional issue, from antiquity to modern times. This is partial take from its conclusion:

Identity should be a foremost consideration, for if it is not then subsequent work would not be grounded. Now we can see how the question of reparations, land ownership, citizenship, free-movement, African Continental union, African People unity, all hinge on a clear definition of African identity. History is our clarifier; it is our memory. And every struggle which forgets history repeats it. The dilemma of race was unresolved Post-Civil Rights and still today we fight for basic rights. Unfortunately, what Africans first have in common with each other is a monolithic response to the same oppression. That oppression always identifies us by our race; From South Africa to Barbados. Every African generation is procrastinating and re-visiting how or if to self-define. And while we fiddle with our thumbs we are being defined in a way which enhances our oppression... It's definitely a TAOBQ-recommened read! 

Also, click to read an earlier and related piece by 'Alik Shahadah entitled: 'Linguistics For A New African Reality: Language and African Agency'

Global African History: Timeline Home Page
This African-American resource unusually provides a very useful global African history timeline.

The Magic Of Diasporans
You may want to read this upbeat Economist article on the positives of global migration.

DNA Shows Blond, Blue-eyed Yorkshireman's African Roots
Click above to read about the fascinating story of Yorkshireman John Revis, whose African roots is shown by DNA results. In January 2012, I attended an event at Migration Museum's Dana Centre entitled 'Migration And Genetics'. Here's the blurb: "There’s been a huge explosion of interest in genetic genealogy and personal DNA testing. But how much do we know about the migration of our ancestors? What do we really want to discover from DNA tests? How much will genetics really be able to tell us about ourselves?

Facilitator George Alagiah was joined by archaeologist and author David Miles, geneticist Dr Turi King and Patrick Vernon (creator of Everygeneration and 100GreatestBlackBritons) who discussed these issues and more. They were also joined by Yorkshireman John Revis, who shared the surprising results of his own DNA test.

Don’t Call Me B.M.E! – Luis Suarez, Halle Berry, Tiger Woods, & racial identity.
Recently re-connected with an old journo contact Lee Pinkerton through the wonders of Linkedin. Then I discovered this interesting article on race and identity on his blog, The Black Watch. It's a short, breezy read which actually does highlight where racism and racial identity is within Britain and the US. Whilst Tiger Woods wants to recognise all his racial heritage, Hale Berry has apparently decided to race her child as "black" meaning African-American.

How 'The Queen Of British Ska' Wrestled With Race
Once the face and voice of 2-Tone ska group Selecter, Pauline Black talks about her life, including her recent discovery of her Jewish roots, and her father's family. I just assumed she was African-Caribbean, until she recently informed me that she's part Nigerian. Check out this NPR article!

Workplace discrimination prompts 'whitened' job applications
Ethnic minority women face discrimination "at every stage of the recruitment process", a report by MPs says. But what is finding a job like for those affected? This is what one respondent says: "I have many, many friends who were effectively told to 'whiten' their CVs by dropping ethnic names or activities that could be associated with blackness. It was a very sad realisation."

 Race card:  How did the English become white? Gary Taylor finds the answer in a piece of 17th-century street theatre
American English professor provides the lowdown on the use of white/whiteness in olde England. Makes very interesting read!